文峰宫记
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 文峰宫记

 

                                                 (中英文)

 

   文峰天后宫位于莆田市中心城区文献路东段步行街繁华地段。西距旧兴化府衙,今荔城区人民政府治所,近百步之遥;南与文峰新殿相映生辉;北同大路古街巷接壤;东侧径往324国道,康庄坦夷,交通便捷,地理位置显要,香火鼎盛,代代传承,为历史上朝廷认可的妈祖官祭宫庙。

 

    文峰天后宫前身白湖顺济庙,古与湄洲妈祖祖庙、天津天后宫并称为“南宋三大天妃宫”。顺济庙初建于南宋绍兴二十五年(公元1159年),元至正十四年(公元1354年),迁址城内善俗铺原水陆院山门地,迄今已有六百六十个春秋。因西对文峰岭,故称文峰宫,成为“郡县春秋致祭之所”;明万历元年(公元1573年),时任安察副使的陈应魁,对其重新修葺;清乾隆二十一年(公元1756年),兴化府知府宫兆麟主持扩建主殿。嘉庆八年(公元1803年),兴化府知府马陛改北堂的“报功祠”为“三代祠”。嘉庆二十三年(公元1818年),兴化府协镇徐庆超,与辖下宫兵捐俸,集资扩建“三代祠”,现存《文峰天后宫三代祠碑记》一通;公元1929年,莆田林姓族人春声等呈请福建省民政厅上报时国民政府批准,改文峰天后宫为“林孝女祠”,对其加以保护。公元1936年,增建妈祖梳妆楼一座。公元1947年元宵之夜,文峰天后宫前街发生火灾,延烧商店、民居百余家,唯文峰天后宫及附属建筑完好无损,巍然屹立。妈祖灵应,时人称奇。

 

   建国初期,原莆田县人民政府把文峰天后宫列为重点保护的宗教活动场所。1953年以后,一度被挪为百货商店。八十年代末期,文峰天后宫逢春焕发,恢复重光。1993年6月,莆田市人民政府把“三代祠”和“梳妆楼”列为第三批市级文物保护单位;2009年11月,福建省人民政府把其列为第七批省级文物保护单位。2011年9月3日,农历八月初六日吉旦,扩建之新殿落成,金碧辉煌,巍峨壮观。

 

   文峰天后宫是研究和传播妈祖文化的主要庙宇之一,在妈祖信仰的形成、发展过程中地位显要。其妈祖礼俗活动内容丰富,内涵深厚,表现形式与湄洲妈祖祖庙一脉相承,具有传承性、可操作性、规范性、观赏性的特征。2009年5月,其《妈祖信俗》被福建省人民政府列为第一批省级非物质文化遗产拓展项目;《妈祖三献礼》、《妈祖供品》、《妈祖诵经》、《妈祖元宵》先后被列入莆田市非物质文化遗产保护项目。其中的妈祖供品是传统的敬神献礼食品造型艺术,俗称“妈祖筵桌”。2007年5月,首届莆台妈祖活动周期间,展出各类造型奇特的妈祖供品上千件,观众8万人次以上,盛赞无愧为“中华一大绝活”。2008年10月31日,文峰天后宫参与协办的“天下妈祖回娘家”活动,开创了妈祖信众朝圣进香这一礼俗文化活动的先河。来自18个国家和地区的300多个妈祖宫庙的信众在文峰天后宫拈香礼拜,使进香活动达到高潮。2013年元月15日,台南大天后宫等台湾南部20余个妈祖宫庙400余人专程来此进行妈祖文化交流活动,并与文峰天后宫联袂开展巡安布福活动。

 

   文峰天后宫现存南宋妈祖木雕神像一尊,距今800多年。神像高72厘米,身着霞披凤袍,腰系玉带,头梳高髻,脸部丰盈,慈祥端庄,衣纹线条简洁,艺术手法与上海博物馆的宋代木雕菩萨属同时期典型雕塑,价值难以估量。1994年和2005年,分别两次东渡台湾巡展,受到数以万计台湾妈祖信众的膜拜;保存的清嘉庆年间的《天后圣母三代列圣殿宇肇建碑记》和《天后宫三代祠碑记》石刻二件,妈祖銮舆、金绣龙袍、银圭和清光绪辛丑年荔夏,“蒲城桃洞来真书院”敬刊的《敕封天上圣母真经》版本十七章,以及记述中朝民间文化交流的实物,题款为“丙午岁桂月”、“三韩弟子郭文鹏敬刊”的木版刊印“百枝签诗”等文物,弥足珍贵。出版的《天后显圣录》注译,约28万字,分十五章七十八小节以及附录十四篇,为我国第一部妈祖录书,内容丰富,资料翔实。为展现妈祖文化的深刻内涵,传承千年信俗的丰厚底蕴,由陈鹭玲主委与台湾中华现代国画研究学会理事长陈铭显共襄发起,组织台湾八家书画团体的72位书画名家,历时二载,绘制的第三个版本《妈祖圣迹图》六十九幅工笔彩绘墨宝,惠赠文峰天后宫珍藏。并于2012年6月16日上午,作为第四届海峡论坛•妈祖文化活动周的重要内容,举行“两岸妈祖圣迹书画暨妈祖供品联展”。2013年6月,还隆重举行《妈祖圣迹图》画册出版首发式。这是海峡两岸妈祖文化和民间艺术交流的一大盛事,对推动两岸人文的双向流动产生积极的影响。

 

   文峰天后宫是政府民族与宗教事务主管部门批准设立的宗教活动场所。功能设置齐整,组织机构健全,管理科学规范、人员分工明确,工作高效有序,富有团队精神。2007年6月,被莆田市道教协会列为全市“规范管理示范点”。

 

   文峰天后宫根据自身的地位和特点,发挥优势,利用资源,注重社会服务,搭建文化平台,关爱民生福祉,致力慈善事业。组建妈祖曲艺团,创作排演以弘扬妈祖立德、行善、大爱精神为主题的文艺节目,参加省、市级各类文艺汇演和专题广场艺术演出,并获多批次重奖。2010年11月11日和2013年12月31日晚,分别与台北莆仙同乡会联袂在古谯楼前和新殿广场举办《妈祖缘•两岸情》联谊交流大型文艺晚会。海峡两岸妈祖信众心连心,手挽手,同台放歌,表达了两岸同胞同谒妈祖,共谋福祉的心声。同时,积极开展“扶贫助困”、“助教助学”和“献爱心、送温暖”等社会公益事业。近年来,计向四川汶川大地震、青海玉树大地震、台湾地震、贵州旱灾等灾区捐资30余万元,支援灾区人民建设。曾被莆田市民族事务与宗教局评为“莆田市宗教界为汶川大地震捐款先进单位”。2010年5月,被授予“莆田市第一批创建和谐寺院教堂示范点”。

 

   灵应妈祖祈神台,源溯湄洲青史载;广结善缘朝圣地,拈香植福文峰来。神奇的文峰天后宫,妈祖灵光辉耀,展示着崭新的风采!

 

 

 

                 Putian Wenfeng Mazu Palace

 

 

   Putian Wenfeng Mazu Palace (hereinafter referred as the palace) is located at the at Wenxian East Road, Walk Street in the downtown, west one hundred steps away to the old site of Xinghua prefectural government (now the People's Government of Licheng District), south to new Wenfeng Mazu Palace, north to ancient Dadu Street, east to 324 national highway. The palace is from generation to generation with intricate sculptures and colorful painting and is an official sacrifice palace permitted by imperial government in history.

 

   The prolife of the palace is Shunji Temple at Baihu, which was built in Shaoxing Year 25in the Southern Song Dynasty (A.D.1159), and moved to the gate to a monastery of land and water Yard, Shangshu Puyuan in Zhizheng Year 14 in the Yuan Dynasty (A.D.1354) , since then the palace is 660 years thus far. Because the palace faces to Wenfeng Mountain, so it is called Wenfeng Mazu Palace and came a place of the memorial ceremony for Mazu. In Wanli Year 1 in the Ming Dynasty (A.D.1573), CHEN Yingkui (the vice provincial judge) renew the palace, the magistrate of a prefecture of Xinghua GONG Zhaolin was in charge of expand the main temple in King Qian Long year 21; in Qing Dynasty (A.D.1756), King Qiajing year 8 (1803), the magistrate of a prefecture of Xinghua MA Bi changed the Baogong Temple into “Three Generation Temple”.

 

In King Jianqing year 23 (1818), the Lieutenant XU Qingchao and his subordinate and follower contributed their salary to enlarged “Three Generation Temple”, filed in “a record of events inscribed on a tablet for Three Generation Temple of Putian Wenfeng Mazu Palace

 ”.

   In 1929, the clansman of Lin Family Chunshan wrote and applied to the Civil Department of Fujian Province and got the government approved, the name of Putian Wenfeng Mazu Palace was changed to Dutiful Daughter Lin Temple and gave it protection; in 1936, Dress Building was set up. At the night of Lantern Festival in 1947, the front street was on fire, 100 shops and resident houses were burn, only Wenfeng Mazu Palace and her outbuildings were received in good condition, people were surprised and said Mazu shown its presence or power.

 

   In the founding initial stage, Wenfeng Mazu Palace was listed to key and protection as religious activity place. From 1953, once the palace was changed to department store. In the end of 80s, the palace was turn calamities into blessings, “Three Generation Temple” and “Dress Building” were listed as third Batch City-Level Cultural Relics Preservation Unit by The People's Government of Putian City in June 1993; also as seventh Batch Provincial-Level Cultural Relics Preservation Unit by The People's Government of Fujian Province I November 2009; a new palace was built in September 03, 2011 (Chinese traditional  calendar August 06), the place is Resplendent in gold and jade green.

 

   The palace is a main one for studying and spreading Mazu culture, and the important place in Mazu believe and development; it I come down in one continuous line with Mazu Ancestral Temple of Meizhou and has operational, criterion and  admire character.

 

   In May 2009, “Mazu Believe” was as first Batch Provincial-Level immaterial cultural heritage by The People's Government of Fujian Province;”Mazu Three Offerings”, “Mazu Reading religious scriptures” “Mazu  gift” and “Mazu Lantern Festival” were successively as was as City-Level immaterial cultural heritage by The People's Government of Putian City;among them Mazu Three Offerings” is traditional food offering as well as called “Mazu Banquet table”, in May 2007, the first Putian-Taiwan Activity, 1000 pieces of various kind of offerings were shown, the visitors are over 80,000 person-time, it is  worthy of a unique technique in China.

 

   On October 31, 2008, the palace participated and assisted the activity of “Mazu return to mother land”, which started a advocated earlier in pilgrimage activity. More than 300 Mazu believers from 18 countries and regions came to the palace for worship; on January 15, 2013, more than 4000 believers from over 20 Mazu temples including Tainan Mazu Temple in southern Taiwan had a special trip attended the exchange of Mazu culture, also they had a security patrols boof activities coordinating with the palace.

 

   There is a Mazu woodcarving of South Song Dynasty, dating back to 800 years, the high of the picture is 75 cm, wrapping around phoenix Robe, Waist jade belt, high bun, face plump, kind and elegant, he clothing lines is concise, it and woodcarving Bodhisattva in Song Dynasty at Shanghai Museum are same time, and is invaluable asset. In 1994 and 2005, Mazu woodcarving made a patrol exhibit in Taiwan, and is worshiped by tens of thousands of Mazu Believers in Taiwan.

 

   There are  Record on stone of temple construction of the Three generation of Queen of heaven ” and “Record on stone of temple  of the Three generation of Queen of heaven” produced in Jiaqing years, Qing Dynasty, imperial carriage, Gold embroidered robes, and the chapter 17 of “religious scriptures of Queen of heaven” published in Guangxu years, Qing Dynasty, the material object of exchange between China and Korea, such as xylograph “Baizhi poetry ” by Korean believer Guo Wenpeng etc in the palace, these cultural relic are Extremely Valuable.

 

   There are “The remark of “Record of Queen of heaven provided for you” with 280,000 words, 15 chapters and 78 sections published, organizers are chairman CHEN Luling and CHEN Mingxian, the chairman of Taiwan Chinese Modern traditional Chinese painting Institute, who organized 72 masters of painting and calligraphy draw 69 traditional Chinese realistic paintings of “Mazu trace pictures” third edition, which is [traditional Chinese realistic painting.

 

   In the morning, June 16, 2012, as one of important activities for fourth session trait forum, “Mazu trace pictures and offerings from Taiwan and mainland China exhibition” was hold; in June 2012, the first publish of “Mazu trace pictures” was hold at the palace, which was a great event for the exchange between both sides in Mazu culture and will promote Mazu culture exchange. According to the status and characteristic, the palace exploited the advantages to the full, applied resource, paid more attention to the society, built cultural platform, care of People's livelihood and welfare, Committed to charity. The palace has own Mazu Folk Art Team, created and performed the literature program so as to carry forward Mazu's virtue, kind and love, the team has attended provincial and city level Art show and square art performance and got many awards.

 

   In November 11, 2010 and December 31 2013, both the palace and Putian and Xianyou Townsmen Association of Taibei hold the Cultural Shows successively at Gu Qiao Lou and New Palace Square; Mazu believers from Taiwan and mainland China are hand In hand, heart In heart and singing together, expressed the fellow of Taiwan and mainland China are same fate and believe. At same time, the palace carried out public service of “helping poor”, “Assisting education and students”, and “Showing Loving Hearts”. Resent years the palace contributed over CNY300,000 to disaster areas of Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, Yushu earthquake, Qinghai Province, Taiwan earthquake and Guizhou drought etc.

 

   The palace has got award of earthquake donation advanced unit in Religious circle by Ethnic Affairs and Religious Bureau of Putian City; and the demonstration of the first batch harmonious temples and churches in Putian City.

 

   Mighty Mazu praying at platform, source from history record in Meizhou; receiving wide praise to holy land; burn joss sticks and blessed the congregation at Wenfeng Mazu Palace, supernatural Wenfeng. Emmanuel radiance of Mazu, showing new elegant demeanor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

历史资料

 

     文峰天后宫,位于福建省莆田市区中心原荔城左厢凤山寺西北隅,宫殿坐东朝西,宫前南接凤山寺的“西墙巷”,北通“大度街”。山门正对西郊凤凰山的文峰,故以“文峰”作为宫名。宫后面系凤山寺塔埕,宫前的道路原名“文峰宫前街”(莆田人习惯叫“古楼前”,就是现在“步行街”)。

 

   文峰宫,其前身“白湖顺济庙”,古与湄洲妈祖祖庙、天津天后宫并称为南宋三大天妃宫。

 

   文峰宫,极具官方的正式的色彩的妈祖行宫,是我国妈祖信仰发展史上的一座重要庙宇。凡是前往湄洲祖庙瞻拜祭祀妈祖,或海内外妈祖回娘家,一定要先在文峰宫祭祀或驻驾,再从文峰宫起驾往湄洲岛妈祖山湄洲祖庙,以示正式和隆重。

 

    文峰宫三代祠和梳妆楼于1993年被列为莆田市文物保护单位,2009年被列为福建省第七批文物保护单位。

 

    文峰宫奉祀的南宋木雕妈祖神像,原先供奉在阔口村“白湖顺济庙”。据史载,南宋绍兴二十五年(1155年)莆郡瘟疫流行,群众祈求妈祖保佑平安,是妈祖显灵救了众生。斯时玉湖陈俊卿(1113年—1186年,南宋绍兴八年登榜眼,累官尚书仆射同中书门下平章事)为了感谢妈祖恩泽,献地建“白湖顺济庙”供奉妈祖。绍兴二十五年(1155年)妈祖被朝廷敕封为“崇福夫人”。绍兴二十六年加封为“灵惠夫人”,绍兴二十七年晋封为“灵惠昭应夫人”,并经朝廷下诏钦定,地方官吏每月朔、望(农历每个月的初一、十五)要进香朝拜。每年举行春秋二祭,诞辰(农历三月廿三)、羽化升天(农历九月初九)要公祭。因此朝拜者日众,庙中香火鼎盛。但毕竟位于城郊,距荔城约五里路,每逢祭祀,官府就得兴师动众,诸多不便。另改朝换代后,城郊治安也较差,故于元至正十四年(1354年)把“白湖顺济庙”妈祖迁入城内,在凤山寺西北隅建文峰宫奉安之。

 

  当初,文峰宫只建宫宇一间,后来由邑人赵环珠等出资增建宫前一座南北向跨街的拜亭,但仍然在街上举行祭礼,这样不成正统,也有碍观瞻。

 

  清乾隆二十二年(1757年)兴化府知府宫兆麟决策向宫后“凤山寺”的塔埕扩建主殿。主殿面阔三开间,进深两间加披屋(安放神龛及銮舆等),殿的廊沿前设一个天井并在天井边建两庑。天井前面建山门,山门分为内外廊,门前廊沿竖立一对青石檐柱,大门两旁立抱鼓石。门簪上竖挂一块“文峰宫”宫名匾,系清道光年间邑人林扬祖(陕甘总督,二品大员)所书。大门廊沿中轴线斜安一块用青石制作的“陛石”,上面浮雕龙纹。(按“陛石”乃天子谐也,用于神灵前为表示达尊之意。今被移至东岩山妈祖行宫前阶。)主殿采用“抬梁式”与“穿斗式”合构的两个木排架。殿内用四根内金柱(俗称四中柱),这种清式建筑形制较普遍,斗栱为一斗三升,大额枋上安连续斗栱,用材一般,但做工较精致。殿前设一个天井,起到通风采光,排水的作用。山门木材面为朱红漆。地面铺大方砖。两边廊沿石外侧砌石台阶五级(中间用“陛石”)。

 

  清嘉庆八年(1803年)兴化知府马夔陛于主殿北侧建“三代祠”(面阔三开间),奉祀妈祖三代神主。立有刻石《敕封天后圣三代列圣殿宇肇建碑记》。

 

  清嘉庆二十三年(1818年)兴化府协镇徐庆超集资改建“三代祠”,并立刻石《天后宫三代祠碑记》。

 

  1938年,在“三代祠”右侧增建“升天楼”(又称“梳妆楼”),至今祠与楼均完整。

 

  1920年,顶大度(刘桥巷以北)失火,没有殃及“文峰宫”。

 

  1946年农历正月初三,文峰宫前街(位于顶务巷口)“红全”青果店失火,街两侧店铺被烧毁,但文峰宫没有遭受火灾。经历了以上两次灾难后,文峰宫至古楼前的道路在重建商店时才扩宽为12米多。

 

  解放后于1952年,文峰宫主殿、山门被改建为百货商场。有趣的是白天为百货商场,晚上打烊后就有妈祖的信众们在店门外烧香(插在泥团上)。而后民间开始烧煤球,就用烧过的煤球当香炉。商场每天营业前都得打扫干净,没有人对此有怨言。

 

  前几年在旧城改造中为了打通文献路向东延伸,才不得不拆掉“文峰宫”主殿、山门。现在“文峰宫”“三代祠”位于文献路中段(即步行街)北侧,在新砌筑的临街围墙上面嵌进了“文峰宫旧址”五个镏金大字。现在人们仍旧称呼“三代祠”与“升天楼”为“文峰宫”,因为祠中供奉的宋代木雕妈祖神像是迎自“白湖顺济庙”。这尊用樟木圆雕的妈祖像,工艺为贴金加彩,像高72厘米,距今有近千年历史。发髻形式及身着的服式应该是正宗的宋代妇女装束。另“升天楼”里也挂有一张清代中期木板刻印的妈祖像,都是珍贵的文物。

 

  “三代祠”的木结构是清中期“穿斗结合抬梁”的木构架。用材一般,只设置一些叠合简单的斗栱,但工艺比较精致。至于“升天楼”则是近代的木结构建筑。总之,占地面积嫌小,没有空间余地,令人感到压抑,急需解决防火及信众进香的安全问题。

 

  “三代祠”保存有两块石刻碑记及两根元代石柱都是重要文物。

 

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  文峰天后宫:两岸妈祖信仰交流重要纽带

  走在莆田市荔城区热闹的商业街文献路上,不一会儿便可见到一座红瓦翘顶的庙宇——文峰天后宫。文峰天后宫历史悠久,内藏许多珍贵的文物资料,包括宋代木雕妈祖、清代碑记和手抄妈祖“真经”,以及木版刊印“百枝签诗”等,这些都是研究妈祖文化的珍贵资料。

 

  文峰天后宫的前身是白湖顺济庙,南宋年间由名相陈俊卿在家乡白湖献地建庙,成为朝廷褒封、御祭和官员致祭的唯一场所。南宋时期,妈祖被称为“白湖妃”,取代北宋时期“宁海神女”的称呼。建庙后60年,《白湖顺济庙重建寝殿上梁文》中说“今仰白湖香火,畿半天下”。自此,妈祖的香火从莆田一直传递到东南沿海、江淮流域、湖广、南粤等地,直至世界各地。这一切,都与白湖顺济庙发挥的作用有莫大的关系。

 

  因为文峰宫悠久的历史和珍藏许多文物资料,在弘扬妈祖信仰、传播妈祖文化中发挥着越来越重要的地位,已成为许多学者、专家研究妈祖文化和妈祖信仰重要庙宇。文峰天后宫与湄洲妈祖祖庙关系密切,是湄洲妈祖祖庙在城内的主要“行宫”之一,影响广泛,与台湾的大甲镇澜宫、新港奉天宫、台北松山慈佑宫、北港朝天宫、鹿儿门圣母庙、台南大天后宫等百余个妈祖宫庙,交流活跃。

 

  每逢农历的三月廿三、九月初九妈祖神诞和升天纪念日,以及重大的传统节庆,在妈祖祭祀仪式上,文峰天后宫内都要摆置一盘盘色彩缤纷、造型别致的妈祖供品,让来自海内外的华人华侨香客,在进香中默默传递着愿想与神谕。极富地方民俗韵味和丰厚的传统文化底蕴,已流传到大陆各地和台湾地区的妈祖宫庙,影响范围相当广泛。

 

  1994年和2005年,距今800多年的南宋木雕妈祖神像,两次东渡台湾巡展。2000年5月,台湾大甲镇澜宫和新港奉天宫等16个宫庙组成的大型进香团,驻跸文峰天后宫,举行千禧年进香仪式,对该宫极富特色的“妈祖供品”倍加赞赏。

 

  莆田市博物馆馆长柯凤梅:文峰天后宫是莆田市妈祖信仰的三大庙之一。既是历代官府祭拜妈祖的主要庙宇,也是海峡两岸妈祖信众谒祖进香的主宫庙之一。

 

  改革开放以来,台胞到大陆谒祖进香和开展民俗文化交流的人数日益增多,文峰天后宫也渐成为两岸同胞妈祖文化交流的重要场所。该天后宫接待过台湾大型进香团,在妈祖诞辰纪念日、妈祖羽化升天纪念日、妈祖文化周、妈祖回娘家等活动中,成为两岸同胞民俗文化交流的主要场所之一。